At the Earth's poles, wildlife survives both under the sea, and on the icy surface above.
- During the winter, both the Arctic and Southern Oceans are covered in a thick layer of ice.
- The two frozen oceans support very different ecosystems, including polar bears in the Arctic and emperor penguins in the Antarctic.
- The animals that live in the Arctic and Antarctic regions have had to adapt in order to survive in such extreme conditions.
- The Arctic and Antarctic environments may seem inhospitable but there is an abundance of life above and below the frozen surface.
Winter in the Arctic and Antarctica means temperatures as low as minus 70 degrees centigrade.
Saltwater freezes at minus 2 degrees centigrade so during this time, the Arctic Ocean is transformed, covered in a layer of ice 3 metres thick.
Arctic Ocean: Winter ice covers 16 million km²
In Antarctica, winter ice advances ...
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